Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts

Friday, June 19, 2015

Science Starts with a Question, Not a Conclusion

Science is the perpetual pursuit of truth. It explores, identifies, investigates and forms models to predict future events. Models are applied to new instances and are tested against their natural environment to ensure that they are valid under similar situations. Science rests on asking questions. If science starts with a conclusion, the entire process of investigation becomes invalid.

A person who jumps quickly to a conclusion without appropriate fact finding often does so based on their personal and subjective perspective. The conclusion is more about the investigator’s personality and goals than it is about truth. The researcher projects their bias into the study and skews the results; the entire report becomes invalidated.

Starting with a question ensures that all possible outcomes are considered as an explanation. The researcher should not selectively accept and reject relevant information without ensuring they are outside the scope of the study. An accurate picture is created when all of the competing information is included in the study and used to draw logical conclusions.

The process of investigation is so important that we have developed a scientific method of balances and controls. The discovery process rigidly defines how to investigate a problem to help limit investigator bias that inadvertently seeps into the study. Ensuring scientific exploration follows appropriately methodology leads to higher relevance, validity and internal consistency of the study.

I have seen researchers push for a conclusion before designing the study. Even though they may not be aware of it, the investigator designs the entire study to justify their point.  They were not able to see the obvious and more parsimonious answers in front of them because they were perceptual blind to alternative explanations.

Whether one is conducting academic research, investigating a corporate problem, is a law enforcement investigator, or trying to replicate previous studies it is important to start with a question and not an answer. A question creates a better reflection of truth by logically moving to an unknown conclusion.

Training researchers to approach complex problems with the right mindset helps in generating better results that can be applied to predict future events. As the models change, develop, and adjust they become more accurate with each repetitive investigation. Only through openness of thought and exactness of measurement will new discoveries lead to higher performance. Each investigator should seek truth above confirmation of self-beliefs and bias.

Do you have a question or an answer? “By doubting we are led to question, by questioning we arrive at the truth.” Peter Abelard (French Philosopher)

Thursday, February 26, 2015

Call for Papers: Conference on Sustainable Development in Business Tourism and Sciences at Boston

Dates: 11th to 13th June 2015 Boston, United States of America

Welcome to ICBTS2015 the best workshops for academic researcher Lecturer student in presenting discussion share idea in new research for development our works focus on business marketing finance banking tourism hospitality social science & technology 

Paper Submitted to :    

Full-length papers, topics of paper, reviews, research-in-progress papers, case studies and /or abstracts,  relating to all areas of Accounting, Banking, Business, Finance, Economics, Investment,  Management, Marketing, Business Ethics, E-Commerce, Tourism management, Tourism strategy, Tourism Development, Hospitality, Hotel management  and all other areas of Business Studies and Tourism studies and Hospitality Studies are invited for the above international conference. An author can present up to two papers. This Conference supported by International Journal of Business Tourism and Applied Sciences (index list in Paris, France) Vol. 3 No.2  

Organized by: IJBTS International Journal of Business Tourism and Applied Sciences
Deadline for abstracts/proposals: 28th February 2015

Tuesday, January 27, 2015

Intuition and Science that Lead to Solutions

Science and Intuition seem like they have been at odds with each other but the more we learn about intuition the more we understand its knowledge base. There are two ways to gain insight into particular problems that can lead to a path of discovery and knowledge. Science and intuition are not opposed to each other and are based in some of the very same methodologies. 

Intuition is a blend of logic, experience and subconscious (Robinson, 2007). It is a fast paced analysis that leads to a better understanding of the environment as well as those “awe” inspiring moments that create insight. As a logic, experience and subconscious process it cannot be discounted as a valid method of understanding the world. 

The process of intuition offers a way of seeing and experiencing the world that some people call the “sixth sense”. This is not a third eye as common folklore states but is similar to sensing and perceiving the world around us (Hales, 2012). It is an understanding of a solution without having the knowledge of where that solution came from.  

Intuition is seen as a higher form of knowledge through instant cognition. That instant understanding cannot occur unless there has been enough background knowledge to make such insight possible. The subconscious connects the information and puts forward a solution without our conscious awareness. It is quick and many times very accurate.

Immanuel Kant discussed intuition as something derived without direct observation while Benedict Spinoza thought of it as understanding of the world as an interconnected whole. The latter is a knowledge that takes the big truths and breaks them down into individual insight. The greater concept leads to the truth of smaller elements. 

Intuition and science can actually work in tandem. Intuition, like innovation, requires a deeper understanding of product purposes before a new solution can be found. This means that someone must have the education, experience, or skill to create the pieces of information that lead to a new idea. When that initial insight occurs it must be explored and tested to become something tangible. The scientific method can be an enhancement to self-generated knowledge.

Hales, St. (2012). The faculty of intuition. Analytic Philosophy, 53 (2). 

Robinson, L. (2007). Trust your gut. Business Book Summaries, 1 (1).

Friday, August 29, 2014

Encouraging San Diego Creativity to Solve Business and Scientific Problems

Creativity isn’t just the domain of the artistic types and has practical applications for businesses. Without new ideas, ways of accomplishing goals, and unique solutions businesses fail to develop and grow. A paper by Deepa and Gopal (2011) delves into a model of creativity and how it can be used to foster business growth. The model focuses on four main stages of creative development that pushes a unique idea to a practical solution. San Diego has an abundance of creative people and artists from all walks of life that can contribute to economic growth.

Ralph Waldo Emerson once wrote, Art is a jealous mistress, and, if a man have a genius for painting, poetry, music, architecture, or philosophy, he makes a bad husband, and an ill provider, and should be wise in season, and not fetter himself with duties which will embitter his day.”  The problem with artists is not the art itself but the practical use of the creative mind to solve real problems. With a little training and trust an artist can turn into an idea generator.

Creative people have the natural ability to see problems from a more holistic vantage point and make new and unique conclusions to solve problems. The very nature of science and advancement springs forth from developing a unique perspective and conclusion of a problem. The possibilities of the solution are analyzed through critical thinking and the scientific method. 

The four stages of creative development are:

Preparation: The period of a person’s life where they gain knowledge, skills and abilities. It is a long process of practice, experimentation, and trial & error. 

Imagination: The stage where new ideas are created through analogies, brainstorming, memory associations. It may also include other types of analysis such as cost & benefit as well as SWOT.

Development: From the imagination stage a few ideas will show promise and are moved into the development stage where they are evaluated for feasibility, marketability, and sustainability. 

Action: Once the most feasible ideas have been evaluated it is possible to develop a strategy for action.

Creative thinking for artists parallels creative thinking in science and business. Newton wouldn’t have discovered the laws of gravity without first being hit in the head by an apple. The Internet would not have been developed without insight into the nature of communication. Society itself cannot move forward without a creative and entrepreneurial class that pushes new concepts forward.

Business executives should learn the important applications of creativity in the workplace and no longer shun such activities but instead learn to capitalize on them. Including creative people on a team help to encourage that team to think beyond conventional limitations. Creativity matched with the experience of more seasoned members and with those who have analytical evaluative abilities moves the unique into something feasible for business purposes. The next time you see an artist walking down the street scratching out a living think about the other benefits such people provide if put to practical use. Places like San Diego have an abundance of creative people seeking opportunities to put their natural abilities to good use to the advantage of themselves and their employers.

Deepa, N. & Gopal, R. (2011). Advocating different paradigms: relevance of workplace creativity. SIES Journal of Management, 7 (2).