by Dr. Michael S. Miller Bandura (1997) presented self-efficacy as a mechanism of behavioral change and self-regulation in his social cognitive theory. Defined as “beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments” (p. 3), Bandura (1997) proposed that efficacy beliefs were powerful predictors of behavior because they were ultimately self-referent in nature and directed toward specific tasks. The predictive power of efficacy has generally been borne out in research, especially when efficacy beliefs are measured concerning specific tasks. It is necessary, therefore, to find the optimal level of specificity of the measure, which is in correspondence with the task and the area under evaluation. In the same vein, Burgoyne (2010) summarizes some properties implied in measuring self-efficacy, which refers to certain tasks or activities. They are linked to certain areas of operation and are dependent on the context
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