Last week I got done reading the book Theory and Reality which went through the introduction to the philosophy of science. I must say that it is a great book and people who are trying to learn about science and study science should read it. Unlike many other books it provides for a broader knowledge of the context and type of thinking associated with science.
Concepts like empiricism, naturalism, and scientific revolution. You will also find subjective interpretation, empiricism, Bayesianism, Kuhn, Logic and history. Mostly the book will put the different manners of viewing and seeing science and observation into a larger picture.
Sometimes we learn about the method and the overall process of designing experiments but we don't always have the large background knowledge needed to contextualize such information. It is important here because in research one has to be familiar with the methodology to better manage data and observation.
It is kind of a long book but the author does a pretty good job of explaining the concepts in a way that builds off of each other. I think I gained a few IQ points by reading it. It helped me put together all of these different pieces of philosophy and science into a better framework.